Carnatic music is a system of music commonly associated with the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its area roughly confined to four modern states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu.
Although there are stylistic differences, the basic elements of śruti (the relative musical pitch), swara (the musical sound of a single note), rāga (the mode or melodic formulæ), and tala (the rhythmic cycles) form the foundation of improvisation and composition in both Carnatic and Hindustani music.
Carnatic music is mainly sung through compositions, especially the kriti (or kirtanam) - a form developed between the 14th and 20th centuries by composers such as Purandara Dasa and the Trinity of Carnatic music. Carnatic music is also usually taught and learnt through compositions.
Hindustani classical music is the traditional music of northern areas of the Indian subcontinent, including the modern states of India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan. It may also be called North Indian classical music or Śāstriya Saṅgīt. Its origins date from the 12th century CE, when it diverged from Carnatic music, the classical tradition of southern parts of the subcontinent.
Hindustani classical music has strongly influenced Indonesian classical music and Dangdut popular music, especially in instrumentation, melody, and beat. Besides vocal music, which is considered to be of primary importance, its main instruments are the sitar and sarod. Classical music can be divided into melody and rhythm; there is no concept of harmony.
Light music is a generic term applied to "light" orchestral music, which originated in the 18th and 19th centuries and continues until the present day. Its heyday occurred during the mid‑20th century.
The style is a less "serious" form of Western classical music, featuring through-composed, usually shorter orchestral pieces and suites designed to appeal to a wider context and audience than concerti, symphonies and operas. The form was especially popular during the formative years of radio broadcasting, with stations such as the BBC Light Programme featuring a playlist largely consisting of light compositions.
Occasionally known as mood music or concert music, light music is often grouped with the easy listening genre.[not in citation given] Light music was popular in the United Kingdom, the United States and in continental Europe, and many compositions in the genre are still familiar through their use as film, radio and television themes.